General anesthesia classification pdf

2 Excerpted from Continuum of Depth of Sedation: Definition of General Anesthesia and Levels of Sedation/Analgesia, 2004, of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA). A copy of the full text can be obtained from ASA, 520 N. Northwest Highway, Park Ridge, IL 60068-2573 Last Amended: December 13, 2020 (original approval: October 15, 2014) Download PDF. The ASA Physical Status Classification System has been in use for over 60 years. The purpose of the system is to assess and communicate a patient's pre-anesthesia medical co-morbidities. The classification system alone does not predict the perioperative risks.

(PDF) What Is General Anesthesia?

Anesthesia 19 IV. Premedication 23 V. General Immediate Preoperative and Postoperative Care of Patient 32 VI. Volatile Liquid Anesthetic Drugs: Ether, Chloroform, Ethyl Chloride, Vinethene 43 VII. Gaseous Anesthetics: Nitrous Oxide, Ethylene, Cyclopropane 63 VIII. Avertin 86 IX. Intravenous Anesthesia 93 X. Local Anesthesia 99 XI Stages ofgeneralanesthesia Guedel's classification, introduced by Arthur Ernest Guedel in 1937 describes four stages of anesthesia. Despite newer anesthetic agents and delivery techniques, which have led to more rapid onset of - and recovery from - anesthesia (in some cases bypassing some of the stages entirely), the principles remain General anesthesia is a state characterized by analgesia, unconsciousness, amnesia, skeletal muscle relaxation, and inhibition of sensory and autonomic reflexes. The extent to which any individual anesthetic drug can exert these effects varies with the drug, the dosage, and the clinical situation

General anaesthesia 1. GENERALANAESTHESIA Dr. Deepak K Gupta 2. Introduction • General anaesthetics (GAs) are drugs which causes reversible loss of all sensation and consciousness Anesthesia can be general and local. In dentistry the main, almost the only way is local injection anesthesia with specific medications - local anesthetics. The effect of anesthesia is provided by the following mechanism. Using the injector, equipped with a needle, solution of local anestheti

Anesthesia cannot be defined in an unambiguous manner. The essential components of general anesthesia are absence of consciousness and pain. This translates into two particular qualities: (1. While under general anesthesia, a patient is unable to feel pain and will likely wake with some short-term amnesia (memory loss). Experts are unsure exactly how general anesthetics work. List of General anesthetics: View by Brand | Generic. Filter by. Drug Name Avg. Rating Reviews; Diprivan Generic name: propofol: 8.7. 21 reviews: Ketalar. General Anesthesia. While there are many types and levels of anesthesia — medication to keep you from feeling pain during surgery — general anesthesia is most commonly used for major operations, such as knee and hip replacements, heart surgeries, and many types of surgical procedures to treat cancer.Many of these surgeries are lifesaving or life-changing and would not be possible without.

Definition. Anesthesia refers to the abolition of sensation. General anesthesia is a reversible state characterized by loss of reception and perception of stimuli.Important effects seen in general anesthesia are sedation, reduced anxiety, lack of awareness and amnesia, skeletal muscle relaxation, suppression of protective reflexes, and analgesia.. The most important of these factors are. Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia: PDF Only Guedel Arthur E. M.D. Current Researches in Anesthesia & Analgesia: August 1927 - Volume 6 - Issue 4 - p 157-16 An accreditation classification granted to an educational program indicating that the program achieves or exceeds the basic requirements for moderate, and deep sedation; and general anesthesia as defined in the American Dental Association's Guidelines for the Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists. Competencies: Written. Traditional classification of dental local anesthesia methods must be modified. In our current paper we have proved the vascular mechanism is the leading component of spongy injection. It is necessary to take into account the high effectiveness and relative safety of the spongy anesthesia. We must also take into account its versatility, ease of. Classified into 2 major types. They are : General anesthesia. Local & regional anesthesia. • • Spinal Anesthesia: it is achieved by injection 1.8 ml of 5% lignocaine solution into. the subarachnoid space through a lumber puncture. • Other drugs which can be used are cinchocaine, procaine and amethocaine. • It can cause serious hypotension

General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.It is carried out to allow medical procedures that would otherwise be intolerably painful for the patient, or where the nature of the procedure itself precludes the patient being awake All extractions were done under General anes-thesia using a conventional surgical technique. Dental phobias and apprehensive patients, Parents willingness to go for surgical extraction in single visit, deeply em - bedded impacted wisdom teeth class ramus III and Depth C were indications for surgical decision for extraction under general anesthesia Since general anesthesia first became widely used in late 1846, assessment of anesthetic depth was a problem. To determine the depth of anesthesia, the anesthetist relies on a series of physical signs of the patient.In 1847, John Snow (1813-1858) and Francis Plomley attempted to describe various stages of general anesthesia, but Guedel in 1937 described a detailed system which was generally. Zakaria Messieha, Ranga Chelva Ananda, Ian Hoffman, William Hoffman, Five Year Outcomes Study of Dental Rehabilitation Conducted Under General Anesthesia for Special Needs Patients, Anesthesia Progress, 10.2344/0003-3006(2007)54[170:FYOSOD]2..CO;2, 54, 4, (170-174), (2007) List of drugs used to treat the medical condition called General Anesthesia. Click on the drug to find more information including the brand names,dose,side-effects, adverse events, when to take.

(PDF) What Is General Anesthesia

  1. d. Despite the widespread presence of clinical anesthesiology in medical practice, the mechanism by which diverse inhalational agents result in the state of general anesthesia remains unknown. Over recent decades, our understanding of general anesthetic mechanisms has evolved dramatically.
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General Anesthesia |authorSTREAM

Anesthesia by compression was common in the antiquity. Cold as an anesthetic was This is the basis for the classification of local anesthetics as either esters or amides. Injecting local anesthetics in the proximity of a nerve(s) triggers a sequential set of events, which eventually culminates with the interaction of some of their molecules. The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system was developed to offer clinicians a simple categorization of a patient's physiological status to help predict operative risk. The ASAPS originated in 1941 and has seen some revisions since that time. [1][2][3 EEG-Based Automatic Classification of 'Awake' versus 'Anesthetized' State in General Anesthesia Using Granger Causality Nicoletta Nicolaou1,2*, Saverios Hourris3, Pandelitsa Alexandrou3, Julius Georgiou1,2 1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, KIOS Research Centre, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus, 2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering The top 25 Anesthesia ICD-9 to ICD-10 code mappings is found in the chart below. Top 1-25 ICD-9 Description ICD-9 ICD-10 Description ICD-10 1 724.4 Thoracic or lumbosacral neuritis or radiculitis, unspecified M51.14 Intervertebral disc disorders with radiculopathy, thoracic region Intervertebral disc disorders with M51.1

ASA Physical Status Classification System American

risks for each patient. Subtype classification, with par-ticular attention to those variants with increased vascular fragility (especially vascular EDS), should be obtained before surgery. Preoperative history and physical examination Preoperative history and physical examination, general assessment and subtype classification, results of previou Four stages of sedation have been described, ranging from minimal to moderate, deep, and general anesthesia (Table 2). In gener al, most endoscopic procedures are performed with the patient under moderate sedation, a practice that was formerly referred to as conscious sedation

Anesthesia consists of general anesthesia, spinal, or major regional anesthesia. It does not include local anesthesia. General anesthesia is a drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable even by painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function is often impaired. Patients often. personnel provide a pre-anesthesia evaluation and are present during the entire procedure. They must be prepared to convert the patient to general anesthesia and provide airway management if complications arise. Deep sedation with propofol is required to be administered by anesthesia services. It has bee sedation, regional anesthesia, or general anesthesia.4. Prior to anesthesia or during the intraoperative period, the decision to admit the patient to the PACU or intensive care area is discussed by the proceduralist and anesthesia professional. Some procedures and anesthesia techniques allow transition from the operating or procedur There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that depression or functional disconnection of frontal-parietal networks occurs during general anesthesia. 1 If fully confirmed, this would be an important advance for anesthesiology because it could help us (1) understand how our anesthetic drugs act to cause unconsciousness, and (2) monitor the effects of our anesthetic drugs in the clinical. Continuum of Depth of Sedation: Definition of General Anesthesia and Levels of Sedation/Analgesia. Amended October 2019. American Society of Anesthesiologists. Statement on Sedation & Anesthesia Administration in Dental Office-Based Settings. 2017. Cohen D, Diaz L, Balzer J. Chapter 17 - Anesthesia for Infants and Children

The provision of comprehensive care for patients with special needs using dental general anesthesia (DGA) has changed over time, and now includes more complex procedures and the participation of many.. Balanced general anesthesia, the most common management strategy used in anesthesia care, entails the administration of different drugs together to create the anesthetic state. Anesthesiologists developed this approach to avoid sole reliance on ether for general anesthesia maintenance. Balanced gene ANESTHESIA SERVICES Differences between Private and Medicare Payments Likely Due such as general anesthesia, are administered to patients undergoing surgical or other and Program Payments for Original Medicare Beneficiaries, by Berenson-Eggers Type of Services (BETOS) Classification, Calendar Year 2018, accessed July 23, 2020 Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia: PDF Only Guedel Arthur E. M.D. Current Researches in Anesthesia & Analgesia: August 1927 - Volume 6 - Issue 4 - p 157-16 · Using heavy sedation versus general anesthesia: This choice depends on the procedure, patient temperament, and the need for monitoring and support. In general, sedation may be ap-propriate for shorter (,30 min) and less-invasive procedures (e.g., diagnostic procedures, joint injections, suture removal, and wound management)

2020 National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20894 NLM Support Center: https://support.nlm.nih.gov NLM Classification WORLDWIDE SOURCE OF MEDICAL LIBRARY CLASSIFICATION In the united states, nearly 60,000 patients per day receive general anesthesia for surgery. 1 General anesthesia is a drug-induced, reversible condition that includes specific behavioral and physiological traits — unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and akinesia — with concomitant stability of the autonomic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory systems. 2 General anesthesia.

General anesthesia usually uses a combination of intravenous drugs and inhaled gasses (anesthetics). General anesthesia is more than just being asleep, though it will likely feel that way to you. But the anesthetized brain doesn't respond to pain signals or reflexes. An anesthesiologist is a specially trained doctor who specializes in anesthesia 3. The pre -anesthesia medical record entry will ordinarily indicate the planned technique of anesthesia (i.e., general, spinal, or other regional). Exceptions to this can be made whenever the precise technique of anesthesia mi ght be more appropriately determined in the operating suite where the precise immediate pre-operative status of the. anesthesia is typically between 1.5‐3% Isoflurane. Induction of anesthesia with gas is typically achieved with < 2 min exposure to 3‐5% Isoflurane. Advantages: Rapid induction and recovery. A precision vaporizer provides the ability to precisely titrate the level of anesthesia during a procedure General and Local Anesthesia General Anesthesia. General anesthesia involves the administration of combined different general anesthetic agents with the fewest adverse effects to achieve analgesia (loss of pain perception), unconsciousness (loss of awareness of one's own surroundings), and amnesia (inability to recall what took place). It also blocks the autonomic reflexes governing. during anesthesia (Box 8-3). They reduce oxygen consumption by decreasing HR, BP, and myocardial contractility. HR reduction increases diastolic CBF. Increased collateral blood flow and redistribution of blood to ischemic areas may occur with β-blockers. More free fatty acids may be available for substrate consumption by the myocardium

Orthognathic surgery is generally performed under general anesthesia on an inpatient basis. Although sometimes performed for cosmetic purposes, orthognathic surgery is generally considered to be medically necessary when performed to treat a significant abnormality that is causing considerable functiona Onset of anesthesia is 2-5 minutes after IM injection, duration of anesthesia is 20-30 minutes. As with ketamine, IM injection may be painful. Recovery may be prolonged with IM injection (up to 5 hours). BENZODIAZEPINES Diazepam (Valium ) Mode of Action Hypnotic sedative-probably effects release of endogenous GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter General DIPRIVAN is an intravenous general anesthetic and sedation drug for use in the induction and maintenance of anesthesia or sedation. Intravenous injection of a therapeutic dose of propofol induces anesthesia, with minimal excitation, usually within 40 seconds from the start of injection (the time for one arm-brain circulation) General Mechanisms of the Drugs that acting on the CNS. T ypes of neurotransmitters in the CNS: 1.Acetylcholine (Ach ). 2.Catecholamines that composed of Norepinephrine (NE), Epinephrine (Epi) and.

Anesthesia and it's Classification - SlideShar

  1. General Considerations. General anesthesia (GA) is the state produced when a patient receives medications to produce amnesia and analgesia with or without reversible muscle paralysis. An anesthetized patient can be thought of as being in a controlled, reversible state of unconsciousness. Anesthesia enables a patient to tolerate surgical.
  2. GI Endoscopy Unit Operations. Guidelines for sedation and anesthesia in GI endoscopy. Jan 30, 2018, 15:03 PM. Leave a comment. This document is an update of guidelines for sedation and anesthesia in endoscopy prepared by the Standards of Practice Committee of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE)
  3. Drug by Classification Mechanism of Action Indications for Use Contraindications Toxicity/Adverse Effects Other Characteristics General Anesthesia Analgesia - reduce pain with loss of sensation Loss of consciousness Amnesia Muscle Relaxation Surgical procedures Had food within 6 hours of surgery - aspiration Oral pharyngeal anatomy not.
  4. 2020 AAHA Anesthesia and Monitoring Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. Now available: Step-by-Step Anesthetic Safety. This RACE-approved web conference based on the 2020 AAHA Anesthesia and Monitoring Guidelines for Dogs and Cats covers the continuum of anesthetic care, with a focus on staff training. For a printable PDF, click here

Chapter 15. General Anesthetics Pharmacology for the ..

  1. Anesthesia allows performance of surgical and other interventional procedures by rapidly, safely, and pleasantly producing analgesia (pain control), absence of anxiety (or absence of awareness with general anesthesia [GA]), and adequate muscle relaxation. A critically important aspect of perioperative anesthetic care is maintenance of.
  2. istration of anesthetic drugs and is used during major surgery and other invasive surgical procedures
  3. istered through a breathing mask or tube with oxygen. Some of the side effects of general anesthesia include nausea, vomiting, sore throat, muscle aches, shivering and confusion. General anesthesia is the most common type of anesthetic ad
  4. of general anesthesia, and sedation of ventilated adults receiving intensive care, for a period of up to 72 hours. Chemistry: Propofol, or 2,6-diisopropylphenol (C 12H 18O, MW = 178.271) is a simple molecule and its chemical structure is shown below. Pharmacology: Propofol produces loss of consciousness rapidly within 4
  5. ator, so it is impossible to define a true incidence of adverse outcomes
Advancing Healthcare Reform: The AHA’s 2020 Statement of

Initial Certification in Anesthesiology This content outline covers the In-Training, Part 1, BASIC, and ADVANCED Examinations Revised - November 2019 CONTENT OUTLIN general anesthesia is the use of medication to induce a deep state of unconsciousness to. (ASA) physical status classification system is used to assess and communicate child's preanesthesia medical comorbidities and to help predict perioperative risks. APA guideline on prevention of postoperative vomiting in children (APA 2016 PDF Regional anesthesia makes a specific part of the body numb to relieve pain or allow surgical procedures to be done. Types of regional anesthesia include spinal anesthesia (also called subarachnoid block), epidural anesthesia, and nerve blocks.Regional anesthesia is often used for orthopedic surgery on an extremity (arm, leg, hand, or foot), for female reproductive surgery (gynecological. The indications for general anesthesia for dental treatment include medically compromised patients, patients with cooperation difficulties, and patients requiring extensive dental treatment . The most common indications for general anesthesia are lack of cooperation and multiple comorbidities [6, 7, 8, 9] The ASA classification system is as follows, and is derived by a thorough evaluation of an individual's overall health as assessed by a healthcare provider's review of an individual's health, family history, medications used, diet, and other factors: The Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists. In this document they stated.

General anaesthesia - SlideShar

J Dent Anesth Pain Med. 2019 Aug;19 (4):191-199. English. Evaluation of general anesthesia and sedation during dental treatment in patients with special needs: A retrospective study. Unit of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Süleyman Demirel, Isparta, Turkey General and Local Anesthesia General Anesthesia. General anesthesia involves the administration of combined different general anesthetic agents with the fewest adverse effects to achieve analgesia (loss of pain perception), unconsciousness (loss of awareness of one's own surroundings), and amnesia (inability to recall what took place).. It also blocks the autonomic reflexes governing. anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli (see WARNINGS). 5. As an agent for inducing a hypnotic state. Brevital Sodium can be used in pediatric patients older than 1 month as follows: 1. For rectal or. intramuscular induction. of anesthesia prior to the use of other general In 2016 the American Dental Association released a policy statement titled, The Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists. In this document they stated that moderate sedation was appropriate for individuals with ASA III and IV, and obesity, especially when associated with airway associated morbidity

Anesthesia: Essays and Researches : Table of Contents

(PDF) Anesthetics Drug Pharmacodynamic

General anesthesia is a procedure by which a person is put into sleep like state for the performance of surgery or other painful medical procedures. Although anesthesia was used throughout history, in primitive forms, to help in performing surgeries, the world was introduced to what is general anesthesia for the first time in 1844 NCCI Policy Manual for Medicare. Introduction (PDF) Chapter 1 (PDF) Chapter 2 (PDF) Chapter 3 (PDF) Chapter 4 (PDF) Chapter 5 (PDF) Chapter 6 (PDF) Chapter 7 (PDF DR. NAITIK D TRIVEDI & DR. UPAMA N. TRIVEDI 6. GENERAL ANESTHESIA GENERAL ANESTHESIA DEFINITION: General anesthetics are drugs that act in the central nervous system. They produce reversible loss of consciousness, thereby causing a generalized loss of sensation. HISTORY OF GENERAL ANESTHESIA: Joseph Priestly - discovers N2O in 1773 Sir Humphrey Davy - experimented with N2O. cannot be detected by 50% of the general population until the concentration is more than 125 times the NIOSH recommended exposure limit. Reduce exposures to waste anesthetic gases by fol­ lowing these procedures before anesthesia begins: Inspect the anesthetic delivery system before each use. Look for irregularities or breaks

List of General anesthetics - Drugs

0370 General Classification ANESTHESIA . 0371 Anesthesia Incident to Radiology ANESTHE/INCIDENT RAD . 0372 Anesthesia Incident to . Other Diagnostic Services ANESTH/INCIDENT OTHER DX . 0379 Other Anesthesia ANESTHESIA/OTHER . 038X Blood . 0380 General Classification BLOOD PRE-ANESTHESIA EVALUATION GUIDELINES Guidelines developed by Divyang R. Joshi, MD Original endorsed by: Advocate Safer Surgery Council October 2010 Revised by: Advocate Safer Surgery Council and Clinical Effectiveness Laboratory Committee, March 2016. Next revision due March 201 The Guedel classification for the stages of general anesthesia is based on the administration of a sole volatile anesthetic: diethyl ether. Although patients were commonly premedicated with atropine and morphine, ether was the only induction agent available at the time. It provided amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation

General Anesthesia: Definition & Side Effects - Made for

invasive procedures with local anesthesia or minimal sedation, but not with moderate sedation or general anesthesia (see VHA Directive 2006-023). The establishment of a new multi -specialty CBOC can only be approved by the Secretary, with Congressional notification consistent with 38 U.S.C. 8119(b)(2), (3), and (4). Criteria (a) General acute care bed classification means beds designated for bum, coronary, intensive care, medical-surgical, pediatric, perinatal, rehabilitation, acute respiratory or tuberculosis patients receiving 24-hour medical care. (b) Specialized care with respect to special hospitals shall be considered to be general acute care Constant monitoring of the patient's vital signs is provided to anticipate the need for general anesthesia administration or for the treatment of adverse physiologic reactions such as hypotension, excessive pain, physical-status-classification-system.pdf September 13, 2020 2.American Society of Anesthesiologists. P osition on Monitored. Title 22 California Code of Regulations Division 5 . Title 22 Social Security Title 22 Social Security California Code of Regulations provides information abou History and Physical Examination (Short Form) Surgery History and Physical Examination/ Anesthesia Pre-Op Assessment. Interdisciplinary Flow Sheet. Intraoperative Ophthalmic Surgery Orders. Pain Procedure Order Form. Physician's Intraoperative Progress Note. Pre Operative Services Orders: (Adult and Pediatrics) Spinal Procedure Orders

General Anesthesia: Types and Procedures Medical Online

The most common anatomical categories of surgical procedures performed (based on Canadian Classification of Health Interventions or Canadian Classification of Diagnostic, Therapeutic, and Surgical Procedures codes) were ear and mastoid (1173 [38.1%]), oral cavity and pharynx (1035 [33.6%]), male genital organs (461 [15.0%]), and musculoskeletal. 037X ANESTHESIA Charges for anesthesia services in the hospital. 0370 General 0371 Anesthesia incident to radiology 0372 Anesthesia incident to other diagnostic services 0374 Acupuncture 0379 Other anesthesia 038X BLOOD 0380 General 0381 Packed red cells 0382 Whole blood 0383 Plasma 0384 Platelets 0385 Leucocyte

Stages of Anesthesia and a Re-Classification of the Signs

Local anesthetic agents can be grouped based on their chemical structure. Following are the chemical groups of local anesthetics commonly used in dentistry which are classified accordingly based on their chemical structure. Local Anesthesia is used to attain local analgesia in a certain part of the body using chemical agents. Attaining local anesthesia helps in [&helli Principles of General Anesthesia Pharmacology in General Anesthesia Conduct of General Anesthesia Complications of General Anesthesia General Anesthesia General Anesthesia is a drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable, even by painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function is. the nature of the procedures it performs and the anesthesia used, whether it will accept for admission patients who would have a classification of ASA PS IV or higher. For many patients classified as ASA PS level III, an ASC may also not be an appropriate setting, depending upon the procedure and anesthesia General anesthesia works by interrupting nerve signals in your brain and body. It prevents your brain from processing pain and from remembering what happened during your surgery. A specially.


Classification of local anesthesia method

The parenteral administration of any drug (local anesthesia; IM, IV, or inhalation sedation; or general anesthesia) mandates the more frequent recording of vital signs (see Chapter 5). Patients with BPs in the ASA 2, 3, or 4 categories should be monitored more frequently (e.g., at every appointment), as outlined in the guidelines Halothane is a general inhalation anesthetic used for induction and. maintenance of general anesthesia. Chemically it is named as 1-bromo-1-. chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane. Properties: Halothane. It is a fluorinated volatile liquid with sweet odour. It is non-irritant, non-inflammable and potent anaesthetic General anesthesia is administered by injection or through a breathing mask, or sometimes both. In order to control your breathing, patients are intubated, which is the insertion of a flexible tube down the windpipe. The tube is inserted after the anesthesia is given and removed as you are waking up and breathing adequately

Propofol (Diprivan®) is the most commonly used IV general anesthetic. In lower doses, it induces sleep while allowing a patient to continue breathing on their own. It is often utilized by anesthesiologist for sedation in addition to anxiolytics and analgesics. At higher doses, propofol is a profound respiratory depressant (stops your breathing. INTRODUCTION. Propofol, etomidate, and ketamine are the intravenous (IV) sedative-hypnotic agents commonly used to induce general anesthesia ().After IV injection, these induction agents have rapid onset due to their high lipid solubility allowing penetration of the blood-brain barrier, and the high proportion of the cardiac output (CO) that perfuses the brain (the effect site) Sedation, Definition of General Anesthesia and Levels of Sedation/Analgesia, which was approved by the ASA House of Delegates on October 13, 1999, and amended on October 17, 2004. General anesthesia is a drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable, even by painful stimulation General anesthesia: The administration of drugs or gases that enter the general circulation and affect the central nervous system to render the patient pain free, amnesic, unconscious, and often paralyzed with relaxed muscles. This does not include conscious sedation. Height Dr. Ravindra S.Beedimani shared one of his PowerPoint lectures with Pharmamotion readers, the topic here is Pharmacology of general anesthesia. Dr. Beediman